The Urease breath test
The urea breath test (UBT) allows a non-invasive diagnosis of infection by Helicobacter pylori. The bacterial toxins weaken the stomach protective mucus allowing the stomach cells to be susceptible to the damaging effects of acid and pepsin. It has been discovered that the bacterium produces urease, an enzyme that make it possible to dissociate the urea molecule (N2H4CO) into ammonia (NR|OH) and carbon dioxide (CCh), so the presence of the bacterium can be revealed by detecting the enzymatic activity of urease. The urease enzymatic activity can be assessed by measuring the chemical conversion of urea to carbon dioxide in a breath test.
urea breath test procedure & Instructions
The 13 OR 14 C-urea breath test ( 13 C-UBT) requires the patient to swallow an isotopically labeled ( 13 C OR 14C) urea tablet. The urea is subsequently hydrolyzed to ammonia and labeled CO 2 by the presence of H. pylori urease activity. After approximately 30 minutes, an exhaled breath sample is collected, and 13 CO 2 levels are assessed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. An increase of more than 5% in the I3C breath content is considered as the definite sign of the Helicobacter Pylori infection .
urea breath test normal range
A value of <3/5 is taken as normal, the value of the isotopic ratio may be determined detecting a defined absorbing line for each one of the two isotopes and calculating the ratio between the respective intensities. The natural isotopic content of the I3C isotope in the breath is 1.095% of the total CCh, and very low amounts of I3C are involved to increase the isotopic ratio of 5%. The precision reached by TOLAS is sufficient to perform the analysis.
urea breath test resault
Negative: <5 0 disintegrations per minute (DPM) for H. pylori
5 0–199 DPM indeterminate for H. pylori
>2 00 DPM positive for H. pylori
A sensitive analysis of trace gases in the exhaled breath is possible through the high resolution molecular Spectroscopy based on tunable diode laser (TOLAS). An exemplary application of TDLAS in gastroenterology is the diagnosis of the Helicobacter pylori infection through the urea breath test based on the measurement of i3CO2/12CO2 isotopic ratio in the exhaled breath.
urea breath test cost
Estimated costs of the urea breath test is between 50 - 80 $
J. Alper, Science, 260 (1993) 159-160.Urea breath test
L. G. Sandstrom, S. H. Lundqvist, A. B. Petterson, M. S. Shumate, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron, 5, n.4, (1999), 1040-1048
G. Giubileo, L. De Dominicis, M. Giorgi, R. Pulvirenti, M. Snels, A TDLAS system for the diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori infection in humans, Laser Phys. 11 (2001) n.l, 154
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